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Apologetics is the branch of theology that deals with answering any and all critics who oppose or question the validity of Christianity.   It can include studying such subjects as biblical manuscript transmission, philosophy, biology, mathematics, evolution, logic, history, etc.   The word “apologetics” is derived from the Greek, apologia, which means “a reasoned defense.” As such, it involves providing an answer, not an apology in the contemporary sense of the word.

In 1 Peter 3:15 believers are told always to be prepared “to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you.” The context here is similar to Paul’s later epistles and to Luke’s writings. When challenged, Christians are to give a reasoned defense of what they believe to anyone who asks.

………A more exact definition of biblical apologetics is the science of learning, demonstrating, documenting, and communicating how believing God makes sense. It answers the fundamental question: “Why should I believe God?”

What can a proper study of apologetics accomplish for the teachable Christian?

Apologetics teaches that sufficient proof exists. God has provided objective truth, through general and special revelation, to prove He is both Creator and God. Apologists are often asked, “Can you show proof of God’s existence?” But contrast that question with this one: “If you show proof of God’s existence, will everyone who sees that proof be honest enough to approve of that proof of God’s existence?” According to the Bible, the answer to 1 is “Yes,” but the answer to 2 is “No.” Why? The difference between those two answers is summarized by Paul’s succinct phrase “without excuse,” oranapologêtous in the Greek (“without a defense”), in Romans 1:19-20. Specifically, those who refuse to “approve” of God’s revealed proofs are themselves “without excuse” for disapproving God’s proof. Accordingly, apologetics must be realistic in balancing the presentation of proof with the predisposition of unpersuaded humans to suppress or reject that truth…..Click to read




Training Christian Leaders at Haggai, Hawaii, USA

With Dr.Balasingh after the Buddism seminar at Norton Bridge , Sri Lanka 2 Oct 2015

buddhism (2)






With Islamic Scholar Ahmed Deedat in 1987 at Abu Dhabi Intercontinental

What is the Ontological argument?

What is Kalam’s Cosmological argument?


Extra Reading Resources

  1. Greg Koukl:
  2. J. Warner Wallace:
  3. C.S. Lewis:
  4. Gary Habermas:
  5. Timothy McGrew:
  6. Dr. Michael Brown:
  7. Richard Howe:
  8. Tim Keller:
  9. J. Budziszewski:
  10. Hank Hanegraaff:
  11. Hugh Ross:
Dr. Douglas Groothuis Apologetics 
Introductory Lecture
Nature of Apologetics, 1
Nature of Apologetics, 2
Developing an Apologetic Mind, 1
Developing an Apologetic Mind, 2
Worldviews, Truth, and Knowledge, 1
Worldviews, Truth, and Knowledge, 2
Truth and Knowledge
Testing Worldviews
Natural Theology
Cosmological Arguments, 1
Cosmological Arguments, 2
Cosmological Arguments, 3
Design Arguments, 1
Design Arguments, 2
Design Arguments, 3
Design Arguments, 4
God and Moral Meaning, 1
God and Moral Meaning, 2
God and Moral Meaning, 3
Argument from Religious Experience
Question and Answers
Pascal’s Wager
Miracles, 1
Miracles, 2
Reliability of the New Testament, 1
Reliability of the New Testament, 2
Reliability of the New Testament, 3
Apologetic Role Playing
Claims of Jesus and Resurrection
Easternism and New Age, 1
Easternism and New Age, 2
Easternism and New Age, 3
Testimony on New Age
Religious Pluralism and Exclusivism
Brief Comments on the Medium of Video
Intelligent Design and Science, 1
Intelligent Design and Science, 2 (Closing Comments)
God and the Problem of Evil, 1
God and the Problem of Evil, 2
Notes for these lectures can be found—> here.
 Key Scriptures
 Top 10 Apologetics Books
Know What You Believe
by Paul E. Little 
Know Why You Believe 
by Paul E. Little 
Christian Apologetics
by Normal L. Geisler
Defending Your Faith:
An Introduction to Christian Apologetics
by R.C. Sproul
Christian Handbook of Reason
Insight for Scientists
and Technologists
by ChristianApologetics.orgThe book is freely available and can be downloaded in pdf format or read online.
100 Christian Apologists 
Baker Encyclopedia of
Christian Apologetics
by Norman L. Geisler
The New Evidence
That Demands A Verdict
by Josh McDowell 
Handbook of Christian Apologetics
by Peter Kreeft & Ronald K. Tacelli
Faith Has Its Reasons
by Kenneth D. Boa and
Robert M. Bowman Jr.

1. Kerby Anderson – VP of International Society of Christian Apologetics. 
2. John Ankerberg – Founder of Ankerberg Theological Research Institute; Great podcast
3. Greg Bahnsen – the late great presuppositional apologist. Debated Gordon Stein. 
4. Andy Bannister – London School of Theology / Oxford Centre for Christian apologetics. 
5. Francis Beckwith – noted philosopher and apologist, especially in the area of ethics. 
6. Ken Boa – relational evangelism, discipleship, apologetics. 
7. Darrell Bock – Research Professor of NT Studies at Dallas Theological Seminary
8. Joe Boot – apologist, educator, author and pastor. 
9. Robert Bowman – noted apologetics and theology teacher (Biola) 
10. Justin Brierley – host of Unbelievable? on Premier Christian Radio, UK. 
11. Kyle Butt – staff at Apologetics Press and editor of Discovery magazine. DebatedBarker
12. Ted Cabal – general editor of The Apologetics Study Bible. 
13. Charlie Campbell – itinerant apologist and head of
14. Ergun Caner – provost Arlington Baptist College; author. 
15. Edward John Carnell – was a prominent and influential Christian theologian and apologist. 
16. G.K. Chesterton – famous author, philosopher, theologian, apologist. 
17. David K. Clark – apologist with notable books; teaches at Bethel Seminary 
18. Gordon Clark – Christian philosopher, apologist, and theologian. Contemporary of Van Til. 
19. Kelly James Clark – notable philosopher of religion, author; Calvin College
20. Gene Cook – host of UnchainedRadio; reformed pastor and apologist. Owns a pit bull. 
21. Paul Copan – Philosophy and ethics; noted apologist and author. 
22. Winfried Corduan – Christian philosopher of religion; noted author. 
23. Steven B. Cowan – Associate director of Apologetics Resource Center; Areopagus Journal 
24. William Lane Craig – philosopher, theologian, apologist; Debater par excellence
25. Dinesh D’Souza – writer, speaker, debater. Various notable debates
26. William Dembski – philosopher of science and mathematician; ID theorist. 
27. William Edgar – Professor of Apologetics Westminster Theological Seminary; jazz pianist. 
28. Lenny Esposito – founder of ComeReason apologetics ministry. 
29. C. Stephen Evans – philosophy of religion; apologetics; great author. Baylor
30. Paul D. Feinberg – the late philosopher of religion and apologist; author
31. Harold Felder – founder of GivingAnAnswer apologetics ministry. 
32. Phil Fernandes – Christian philosopher, apologist, debater. Tremendous audio resources
33. John Frame – Reformed Theological Seminary; reformed apologist; Van Til expert. 
34. Norman Geisler – prolific author of over 70 books; Classical apologist. 
35. R. Douglas Geivett – Professor of Philosophy Talbot Department of Philosophy / Biola 
36. Simon Greenleaf – legal scholar famous for his book Testimony of the Evangelists
37. Douglas Groothuis – Christian philosopher, author, teacher
38. Shandon L. Guthrie – philosophy, apologetics, atheism, comparative religions, ethics. 
39. Gary Habermas – the world’s foremost expert on the resurrection of Jesus. 
40. Hank Hanegraaff – today’s Bible Answer Man. 
41. Craig Hazen – director of Biola’s Christian Apologetics program
42. J.P. Holding – founded Tektonics apologetics website; author. 
43. Anthony Horvath – Athanatos Christian Ministries and online Apologetics Academy
44. Phillip E. Johnson – one of the key leaders of the Intelligent Design movement. 
45. Walter Kaiser – scholar, writer, educator, and distinguished Professor of Old Testament. 
46. Timothy Keller – urban pastor and apologist noted for his clear communication. 
47. Greg Koukl – apologist and president of Stand to Reason; excellent radio program
48. Peter Kreeft – professor of philosophy at Boston College, noted apologist. 
49. John Lennox – philosopher of science, mathematician, Oxford debater of Dawkins
50. C.S. Lewis – famous author, lecturer, apologist; Narnia books, Mere Christianity
51. Gordon Lewis – philosopher and theologian; author of Testing Christianity’s Truth Claims
52. Mike Licona – historian and apologist; authority on the resurrection of Jesus. 
53. Bruce Little – philosopher noted for work on the problem of evil and theodicy. 
54. Paul Little – late apologist and author noted for his simple style and easy communication. 
55. David Marshall – world cultures, outspoken against new atheism. 
56. Walter Martin – most famous for his Kingdom of the Cults book; the original Answer Man. 
57. Stuart McAllister – Scottish itinerant cultural apologist with RZIM
58. Josh McDowell – famous for Evidence that Demands a Verdict
59. Sean McDowell – worldview youth minister / itinerant apologist. 
60. Alex McFarland – itinerant apologist targeting young people, teens. 
61. Alister McGrath – Oxford professor of theology, author and opponent of new atheism. 
62. Chad Meister – philosopher of religion, ethics, logic; apologist, author; Bethel College
63. Angus Menuge – Concordia University professor of philosophy. 
64. Stephen Meyer -philosopher of science, intelligent design theorist, author
65. Albert Mohler – president of SBTS, worldview cultural commentator, author, radio host. 
66. John Warwick Montgomery – perhaps the most famous evidentialist apologist. 
67. J.P. Moreland – Christian philosopher, noted author, apologist. 
68. Ronald Nash – Professor Philosophy and Theology at Reformed Theological Seminary 
69. Randall Niles – itinerant and multimedia apologist. 
70. David Noebel – founder of Summit Ministries and worldview apologist. 
71. Scott Oliphint – Professor of Apologetics and Systematic Theology WTS 
72. Amy Orr-Ewing – Director of Training of the Zacharias Trust
73. Craig Parton – trial lawyer and noted Lutheran apologist
74. Alvin Plantinga – world-class philosopher; reformed epistemology, philosophy of religion. 
75. Doug Powell – excellent multimedia apologist at SelflessDefense
76. Michael Ramsden – European Director of Zacharias Trust, speaker for RZIM
77. Fazale Rana – PhD biochemist with Reasons to Believe
78. Ron Rhodes – author and apologist founder of Reasoning from the Scriptures
79. John W. Robbins – reformed apologist, founder of Trinity Foundation
80. Mark D. Roberts – pastor, author, speaker, blogger. Emphasis in NT / Gospels. 
81. David Robertson – Scottish pastor famous/notorious for his Dawkins Letters
82. Hugh Ross – astrophysicist apologist and old Earth creationist; founder Reasons to Believe
83. Kenneth Samples – reformed philosopher, theologian, apologist with Reasons to Believe
84. Francis Schaeffer – famous late cultural apologist, author, philosopher; founder ofL’Abri
85. Mary Jo Sharp – author, apologist, debater; founder of Confident Christianity
86. James Sire – influential worldview author, apologist, and speaker. 
87. Matt Slick – founder of, one of the best apologetics encyclopedias on the web. 
88. R.C. Sproul – notable theologian, author, and classical apologist. 
89. Don Stewart – prolific author, apologist, and host of the Bible Explorer
90. Lee Strobel – journalist famous for his Case for Christ series of books; popular apologist. 
91. Richard Swinburne – world-class Oxford philosopher of religion; author. 
92. Frank Turek – itinerant apologist and founder of CrossExamined; debated Hitchens
93. Cornelius Van Til – the most famous presuppositional reformed apologist. 
94. Jim Wallace – cold case detective, pastor, and apologist; excellent podcast
95. James White – theologian, author, prolific debater, and reformed apologist. 
96. Dallas Willard – Christian philosopher; notable works in philosophy, discipleship, 
97. Peter S. Williams – Christian philosopher; notable works countering Dawkins 
98. Douglas Wilson – presuppositional apologist; number of atheist debates (Hitchens, Barker) 
99. N.T. Wright – Bishop of Durham; notable work on the resurrection. 
100. Ravi Zacharias -perhaps today’s most notable international cultural apologist.  

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